> Where did you get the Component Type Node?
I created it with yEd.
> Where can I get this, ...
Well, download the sample graph from the original post and open it in yEd.
> ... or some extra kind of nodes, ...
I am not aware of any place that has extra nodes for yEd except for the occasional sample uploaded here in the forum. You can, of course, create your own nodes using yEd's customization capabilities or import images/vector graphics/Microsoft Visio stencils to be used as nodes.
> ... or how can I create one?
Well, by using yEd's customization features. E.g. I started with a "Process" node from the "Flowchart" palette section and a rectangular node from the "Shape Nodes" palette section. I resized the first node to 120x60 and the second node to 30x10. Then I duplicated the smaller node. After that I selected one of the two smaller nodes and moved it over the big node. Using "Convert to Label" from the small node's context menu, I converted the small node into a label of the big node. I changed the new label's insets to "0" and its placement to "SmartFree: Anywhere" and moved the label onto the node's left border. I repeated that procedure with the other small node. Et voila, a component type node.
> Can I store those in a custom Palette?
Of course. First, use "Edit" -> "Manage Palette" to create a new user defined palette section. After that, right-click a node in the editor to open its context menu and choose "Add to Palette".